Delivery Conditions (Incoterms 2010)
Applied since 2011
The main changes brought to the delivery terms (Incoterms 2010) are:
► There are two new delivery conditions: Delivered at Terminal (DAT) and Delivery at Place (DAP);
► Four delivery conditions were removed: DEQ; DAF; DES; DDU
► DAP replaces: DAF; DES; DDU
► DAT replaces: DEQ
The delivery conditions were sorted according to their usage: any transportation method, marine and terrestrial
EXW (EX WORKS)
The seller makes the goods available at his/her premises. This term places the maximum obligation on the buyer and minimum obligations on the seller. The Ex Works term is often used when making an initial quotation for the sale of goods without any costs included. EXW means that a buyer incurs the risks for bringing the goods to their final destination. The seller does not load the goods on collecting vehicles and does not clear them for export. If the seller does load the goods, he does so at buyer's risk and cost. If parties wish seller to be responsible for the loading of the goods on departure and to bear the risk and all costs of such loading, this must be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale.
The buyer arranges the pickup of the freight from the supplier's designated ship site, owns the in-transit freight, and is responsible for clearing the goods through Customs. The buyer is responsible for completing all the export documentation. Cost of goods sold transfers from the seller to the buyer.
FCA (Free Carrier)
The seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place. It should be noted that the chosen place of delivery has an impact on the obligations of loading and unloading the goods at that place. If delivery occurs at the seller's premises, the seller is responsible for loading. If delivery occurs at any other place, the seller is not responsible for loading.
If the buyer nominates a person other than a carrier to receive the goods, the seller is deemed to have fulfilled his obligation to deliver the goods when they are delivered to that person.
CPT (Carriage Paid To)
The seller pays for carriage. Risk transfers to buyer upon handing goods over to the first carrier at place of shipment in the country of Export. The Shipper is responsible for origin costs including export clearance and freight costs for carriage to named place (usually destination port or airport). Shipper is not responsible for buying Insurance and for delivery to final destination (buyer's facilities).
This term is used for all kind of shipments.
CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid)
The containerized transport/multimodal equivalent of CIF. Seller pays for carriage and insurance to the named destination point, but risk passes when the goods are handed over to the first carrier. CIP is used for intermodal deliveries & CIF is used for Sea.
DAT (Delivered at Terminal)
This term means that the seller covers all the costs of transport (export fees, carriage, insurance, unloading from main carrrier at destination port and destination port charges) and assumes all risk until destination port, import duty/taxes/customs costs to be borne by Buyer.
DAP (Delivered at Place)
Can be used for any transport mode, or where there is more than one transport mode. The seller is responsible for arranging carriage and for delivering the goods, ready for unloading from the arriving conveyance, at the named place. Duties are not paid by the seller under this term (an important difference from Delivered At Terminal DAT, where the buyer is responsible for unloading).
DDP (Delivered Duty Paid)
Seller is responsible for delivering the goods to the named place in the country of the buyer, and pays all costs in bringing the goods to the destination including import duties and taxes. The seller is not responsible for unloading. This term is often used in place of the non-Incoterm "Free In Store (FIS)". This term places the maximum obligations on the seller and minimum obligations on the buyer. With the delivery at the named place of destination all the risks and responsibilities are transferred to the buyer and it is considered that the seller has completed his obligations
Terrestrial transports and shipping
FAS (Free Alongside Ship)
The seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the buyer's vessel at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that moment. The FAS term requires the seller to clear the goods for export, which is a reversal from previous Incoterms versions that required the buyer to arrange for export clearance. However, if the parties wish the buyer to clear the goods for export, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale. This term can be used only for sea or inland waterway transport.
FOB (Free On Board)
The seller must advance government tax in the country of origin as off commitment to load the goods on board a vessel designated by the buyer. Cost and risk are divided when the goods are sea transport in containers (see Incoterms 2010, ICC publication 715). The seller must instruct the buyer the details of the vessel and the port where the goods are to be loaded, and there is no reference to, or provision for, the use of a carrier or forwarder. This term has been greatly misused over the last three decades ever since Incoterms 1980 explained that FCA should be used for container shipments.
It means the seller pays for transportation of goods to the port of shipment, loading cost. The buyer pays cost of marine freight transportation, insurance, unloading and transportation cost from the arrival port to destination. The passing of risk occurs when the goods are in buyer account. The buyer arranges for the vessel and the shipper has to load the goods and the named vessel at the named port of shipment with the dates stipulated in the contract of sale as informed by the buyer.
CFR (Cost & Freight)
Seller must pay the costs and freight to bring the goods to the port of destination. However, risk is transferred to the buyer once the goods are loaded on the vessel. Insurance for the goods is NOT included. and This term is formerly known as CNF (C&F, C+F or CF).
CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight)
Exactly the same as CFR except that the seller must in addition procure and pay for the insurance.